Q. To what extent did the structure of Russian government and society affect its economic development in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?
A. The eighteenth and nineteenth century of Russia can be photographed with the Industrial Revolution in the frame, along with The Enlightenment and Russia’s progress. Rulers of Russia had three main goals: domestic reformations, territorial expansion and reorganisation of their government. All this contributed to Russia’s prominence and its high status as a powerful European power. But behind all the fame and glory was hidden a story of how leaders sorted an unsystematic government and isolated population; this eventually impacted Russia’s economy.
Q: Analyze the impact of the major developments of the Commercial revolution on Europe's economy and society in the period 1650 to 1789
A: The commercial revolution had a significant effect on Europe both economically and socially. This period marked a growth in economy and population. Many economic ideas and institutions appeared like mercantilism, colonialism, guild systems, and monopolistic institutes. Population growth and growth of towns was a result of better and more food and wealth, which caused the formation of a new industrial class and the revival of the African slave trade.
Q: Describe and analyze the changes that led to Europe's rapid population growth in the eighteenth century.
Thesis: With the Columbian Exchange and exploration introducing new types of foods and farming methods, the agricultural revolution resulted. Heath and hygiene of the people increased resulting in a lower death rate and more offspring from families. Civil and foreign wars also decreased. All of this allowed Europe's population to rapidly grow exponentially high in the eighteenth century.
Q: What were the reasons for the rise of the Netherlands as a leading commercial power in the period 1550 to 1650?
Thesis: The Netherlands experienced a rise as a leading commercial power in the world from the mid 16th to 17th centuries. This was due to advancements made during Spanish occupation. They witnessed a period of fortunate lack of competition in which Spain went Bankrupt, and France was at war with England. Also a result of Spain's occupation was their far above average navy. Netherlands being generally more tolerant then its neighbors led to less internal conflict over religion, and the Calvinistic work ethic also aided economic development. Lastly the Dutch East India Company established a powerful Dutch presence in the Indies, and was probably one of the most beneficial asset to The Netherland's newfound economic power.
Q: Britain and France were engaged in a geopolitical and economic rivalry during the eighteenth century. Identify the factors that contributed to this rivalry, and assess the results for btw countries over the period 1689 to 1789.
Thesis: Ever since Britain defeated the Spanish Armada in the 1500s, stripping Spain of its power, France and Britain became the only renaming dominating powers in Europe. France and Britain have always been rivalries, competing over land, trade, and resources, but this event created even more tension and competition between them. That resulted in a number of various wars ranging from The Hundred Years War to the War of Spanish Succession. The main competition, however, was over colonization of the new world, which raises England to the throne of power after taking over France's colonies.
Identify features of the eighteenth-century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences.
The Agricultural Revolution was characterized by technological advancements, the elimination of fallow, a sophisticated system of crop rotation, and the advocacy of a new system known as enclosure, all of which led to increased efficiency in farming, more feed for animals, and consequently a better diet for the people, which meant an increase in life expectancy and an improved economy.
Compare and contrast the economic and social development of Russia with that of the Netherlands in the period 1600- 1725.
The Netherlands's economical development was based upon its social development.Its business and culture were unique in early modern Europe. The economy was prosperous because of mainly two reasons: conservation and religious toleration. Toleration attracted foreign capital and investment. The Dutch lived in prosperity. Until 1713 when the Dutch economic started it's decline. While in Russia, the 17th century started harshly for the people because they were being slaughtered by invaders. There was no religious toleration which eventually led to rebellions that were crushed. Then Peter the Great came along and along with him so did many reforms. Finally Russia had some prosperity and peace.
Analyze the reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force in European politics in the period 1517-1648.
The decline of the Holy Roman Empire was mainly due to the damage of the Thirty Years War and religious disunity in Germany. The Thirty Years War devastated Germany and led to outside countries seizing some German territories. The Peace of Westphalia gave sovereignty to the many German kingdoms, hindering the Empire’s power. Religious disunity also hurt the Empire’s influence. The Empire did not have the support of the many Protestant kingdoms that were created and was therefore not as strong.
Q:Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform from the period of Peter the Great (1689-1725) through Catherine the Great (1762-1796).
Thesis: Both Peter the Great and Catherine the Great had success reforming Russia politically and socially. Their changes were largely European and stressed Enlightenment. Foreign and domestic polices from Europe were incorporated into Russia.
Thesis: Both Peter the Great and Catherine the Great had success reforming Russia politically and socially. Their changes were largely European and stressed Enlightenment. Foreign and domestic polices from Europe were incorporated into Russia. With Peter's stress on European polices, and Catherine incorporating ideas of Enlightenment, Russia successfully transformed politically and socially.
Many economic ideas and institutions appeared like mercantilism, colonialism, guild systems, and monopolistic institutes.
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